IMPLEMENTASI KURIKULUM MULTIKULTURAL DI SEKOLAH DASAR

Sutjipto Sutjipto

Abstract


Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji fakta empiris implementasi kurikulum multikultural di sekolah dasar. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif kualitatif. Data utama dikumpulkan dengan diskusi kelompok terpumpun dan observasi sekolah. Teknik analisis data menggunakan statistik deskriptif, yaitu penggambaran data dengan pola deskripsi atau telaah. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Juli 2016 sampai dengan November 2016. Populasi dari penelitian ini adalah guru dan siswa sekolah dasar di Kota Tangerang Selatan. Sampel penelitian diambil secara purposive sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dokumen kurikulum yang ada secara signifikan telah mengintegrasikan nilai-nilai multikulturalisme dan pemahaman guru serta kepala sekolah terhadap pengetahuan multikultural berada pada kategori cukup signifikan. Berkaitan dengan implementasi kurikulum, terdapat tiga temuan, yakni: belum dikendalikan secara signifikan dengan baik di sekolah; belum mendorong secara signifikan penguatan nilai-nilai multikultural; dan belum menyuarakan keharmonisan secara signifikan antara budaya pendidikan, kurtur sekolah, dan multikulturalisme melalui pemberdayaan. Dengan demikian, pengimplementasian kurikulum multikultural di sekolah dasar di Kota Tangerang Selatan umumnya belum berubah ke arah yang lebih baik.


Keywords


implementasi kurikulum, kurikulum multikultural, sekolah dasar

Full Text:

PDF (Indonesian)

References


Agirdag, O., Merry, M. S. & Van Houtte, M. 2016. Teachers’ Understanding of Multicultural Education and the Correlates of Multicultural Content Integration in Flanders, Education and Urban Society, 48(6), 556-582.

Arneil, B. & F. MacDonald. 2010. Multiculturalism and the Social Sphere, dalam The Ashgate Research Companion to Multiculturalism, D. Ivison (ed.), 95–117. London: Routledge.

Bachvarova, M. 2014. Multicultural Accommodation and the Ideal of Non-Domination. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 17(6), 652–673.

Banks, J. A. & Banks, C. A. M (Eds.). 2004. Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education. 2nd Ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Banks, J. A. 2007. Educating Citizens in A Multicultural Society (2nd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.

Banting, K., Johnston, R., Kymlmicka, W., & Soroka, S. 2006. “Do Multiculturalism Policies Erode the Welfare State? An Empirical Analysis,” in Multiculturalism and the Welfare State, K.

Banting and W. Kymlicka (eds.), 49–91. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bautista, N., Misco, T. & Quaye, S. J. 2017. Early Childhood Open-Mindedness: An Investigation Into Preservice Teachers’ Capacity to Address Controversial Issues. Journal of Teacher Education, 1-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487117702575.

Betts, K. R. & Hinsz, V. B. 2013. Group Marginalization: Extending Research on Interpersonal Rejection to Small Groups. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 17(4), 355-370.

Blanchet-Cohen, N. & Di Mambro, G. 2014. Environmental Education Action Research with Immigrant Children in Schools: Space, audience and influence. Action Research, 13(2), 123-140.

Brownlie, J & Anderson, S. 2016. ‘Thinking Sociologically About Kindness: Puncturing The Blasé in The Ordinary City’ Sociology, 1-17. DOI: 10.1177/0038038516661266.

Brown, E. L. 2004. What Precipitates Change in Cultural Diversity Awareness during a Multicultural Course: The Message or the Method? Journal of Teacher Education, 55(4), 325-340.

Buckley, T. R. & Foldy, E. G. 2010. A Pedagogical Model for Increasing Race-Related Multicultural Counseling Competency 1  7. The Counseling Psychologist, 38(5), 691-713.

Cavilla, D. 2014. Thoughts on Access, Differentiation, and Implementation of A Multicultural Curriculum. Gifted Education International, 30(3), 281-287.

David, Miriam E. 2011. Learning from Innovative International Research on Higher Education: How to Conceptualise Equity for Policy, Practice and Pedagogies in Higher Education. Research in Comparative and International Education, 6(4), 430-443.

De Bruin, J. 2010. Young People and Police Series: A Multicultural Television Audience Study. Crime, Media, Culture, 6(3), 309-328.

Dollahite, D. C., Layton, E., Bahr, H. M., Walker, A. B. & Thatcher, J. Y. 2009. Giving Up Something Good for Something Better: Sacred Sacrifices Made by Religious Youth. Journal of Adolescent Research, 24(6), 691-725.

Dominguez, S. & Hollstein, B. (Eds.). 2014. Mixed Methods Social Networks Research Design and Applications. New York: Cambridge University Press. du Plessis, E. & Marais, P. 2015. A Grounded Theory Perspective on Leadership in Multicultural Schools. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 52(5), 722-737 doi: 10.1177/0021909615612122.

Elkader, N Abd. 2016. Dialogic Pedagogy and Educating Preservice Teachers for Critical Multiculturalism. SAGE Open, 6, 1-13.

Engelkamp, S. & Glaab, K. 2015. Writing Norms: Constructivist Norm Research and the Politics of Ambiguity. Alternatives, 40(3-4), 201-218.

Faas, D. & Ross, W. 2012. Identity, Diversity and Citizenship: A Critical Analysis of Textbooks and Curricula in Irish schools. International Sociology, 27(4), 574-591.

Ford, Derek R. 2014. Review of Tyson E. Lewis. On study: Giorgio Agamben and educational potentiality. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 33(1), 105–111.

Ford, D. Y. 2013. Why Education Must Be Multicultural, Addressing a Few Misperceptions With Counterarguments. Gifted Child Today, 37(1), 59-62.

Galeotti, A. E. 2010. Multicultural Claims and Equal Respect. Philosophy & Social Criticism, 36(3-4), 441-450.

Gordijn, E., Finchilescu, G., Brix, L., Wijnants, N. & Koomen, W. 2008. The Influence of Prejudice and Stereotypes on Anticipated Affect: Feelings about a Potentially Negative Interaction with Another Ethnic Group. South African Journal of Psychology, 38(4), 589-601.

Grice, J. W., Yepez, M., Wilson, N. L. & Shoda, Y. 2016. Observation-Oriented Modeling: Going Beyond “Is It All a Matter of Chance”? Educational and Psychological Measurement.

Hasyim, S. 2006. Belajar Multikulturalalisme dari Pesantren. Jurnal Al-Wasathiyyah, 1(1). Heryadi, H. & Silvana, H. 2013. Komunikasi Antarbudaya dalam Masyarakat Multikultural. Jurnal Kajian Komunikasi, 1(1), 95-108.

Joesoef, D. 2017. Memikir Ulang Pendidikan, Kompas, 25/1/2017, Hal. 6.

Keddie, A. 2014. Australian Multicultural Policy: Social Cohesion Through a Political Conception of Autonomy. Journal of Sociology, 50(4), 408-421.

Kirk, C. M., Lewis, R. K., Brown, K., Karibo, B., Scott, A. & Park, E. 2016. The Empowering Schools Project: Identifying the Classroom and School Characteristics That Lead to Student Empowerment. Youth & Society, 0(0).

Latif, Y. 2017. Kemajemukan Butuh Keadilan: Penolakan Multikulturalisme Dipicu Ketidakadilan, Harian Kompas. 10 Februari 2017, Hal. 12

Leung, Ka-yee A. & Chiu, Chi-yue. 2010. Multicultural Experience, Idea Receptiveness, and Creativity. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41(5-6), 723-741.

Lie, J. (ed.). 2014. Multiethnic Korea? Multiculturalism, Migration, and Peoplehood Diversity in Contemporary South Korea. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley.

Lowenstein, K. L. 2009. The Work of Multicultural Teacher Education: Reconceptualizing White Teacher Candidates as Learners. Review of Educational Research, March 2009; 79(1) 163-196.

Lykogianni, R. 2008. Tracing Multicultural Cities From the Perspective of Women’s Everyday Lives. European Urban and Regional Studies, 15(2) 133-143.

Maddux, W. W., Bivolaru, E., Hafenbrack, A. C., Tadmor, C. T. & Galinsky, A. D. 2014. Expanding Opportunities by Opening Your Mind: Multicultural Engagement Predicts Job Market Success Through Longitudinal Increases in Integrative Complexity. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5(5) 608-615.

Maddux, W. W., Adam, H. & Galinsky, A. D. 2010. When in Rome ... Learn Why the Romans Do What They Do: How Multicultural Learning Experiences Facilitate Creativity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(6) 731-741.

Mentz, K. & van der Walt, J. L. 2007. Multicultural Concerns of Educators in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Education and Urban Society, 39(3) 423-449.

Miafodzyeva, S., Brandt, N. & Andersson, M. 2013. Recycling behaviour of householders living in multicultural urban area: a case study of Järva, Stockholm, Sweden. Waste Management & Research, 31(5), 447-457.

Mitchell, A. 2010. Peace Beyond Process? Millennium - Journal of International Studies, 38(3) 641-664.

Moree, D., Klaassen, C. & Veugelers, W. 2008. Teachers’ Ideas about Multicultural Education in a Changing Society: The Case of the Czech Republic. European Educational Research Journal, 7(1) 60-73.

Naraian, S. 2016. Teaching for “Real”: Reconciling Explicit Literacy Instruction With Inclusive Pedagogy in a Fourth-Grade Urban Classroom. Urban Education, 0(0).

Nurhayati, A. 2011. Menggagas Pendidikan Multikultur di Indonesia. Jurnal Al-Tahrir, 11(2), 327-347.

Okoye-Johnson, O. 2011. Does Multicultural Education Improve Students’ Racial Attitudes? Implications for Closing the Achievement Gap. Journal of Black Studies. 42(8), 1252-1274.

Olmedo, I. M., 2004. Raising Transnational Issues in a Multicultural Curriculum Project. Urban Education, 39(3), 241-265.

Peterson, M. F. & Søndergaard, M. 2011. Traditions and Transitions in Quantitative Societal Culture Research in Organization Studies. Organization Studies, 32(11), 1539-1558.

Purwanto, J., Suwandi, S., & Wardhani, N. E. 2013. Pendidikan Multikultural dalam Buku Pelajaran Bahasa Indonesia Non-BSE untuk Siswa SMP di Surakarta. Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra, 1(1), 12-26.

Rutland, A., Killen, M., & Abrams, D. 2010. A New Social-Cognitive Developmental Perspective on Prejudice: The Interplay Between Morality and Group Identity. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(3), 279-291.

Santamaría, L. J. 2013. Critical Change for The Greater Good: Multicultural Perceptions in Educational Leadership Toward Social Justice and Equity. Educational Administration Quarterly, 50(3), 347-391.

Schoorman, D. & Bogotch, I. 2010. What is a Critical Multicultural Researcher? A Self-Reflective Study of The Role of The Researcher. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 5(3), 249-264.

Solano-Campos, A. 2015. Children’s National Identity in Multicultural Classrooms in Costa Rica and The United States. Research in Comparative and International Education, 10(1), 71-94.

Thompson, J., Bakken, L. & Wei-Cheng, M. 2009. Equity Education: A Longitudinal Study Comparing Multicultural Knowledge and Dispositions of Field-Based and Campus-Based Teacher Candidates. Policy Futures in Education, 7(4), 416-422.

Tilaar, H.A.R. 2004. Multikulturalisme Tantangan-tantangan Global Masa Depan dalam Transformasi Pendidikan Nasional. Jakarta: PT Grasindo.

Trauna, D. S. 2010. Pendidikan Agama Islam Berwawasan Multikulturalisme. Jakarta: Kementerian Agama.

Walling, C. B. 2016. Secondary Choral Directors’ Multicultural Teaching Practices, Attitudes and Experiences in International Schools. International Journal of Music Education, 34(2), 196-207.

Wihardit, K. 2010. Pendidikan Multikultural: Suatu Konsep, Pendekatan dan Solusi. Jurnal Pendidikan, 11(2).

Wilson, H. F. 2014. The Possibilities of Tolerance: Intercultural Dialogue in a Multicultural Europe. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 32(5) 852-868.

Yudhoyono, S. B. 2017. Menjawab Tantangan 2017, Harian Kompas, 9 Januari 2017, Hal. 6.

Zuriah, N. 2011. Model Pengembangan Kewarganegaraan Multikultural Berbasis Kearifan Lokal dalam Fenomena Sosial Pasca Reformasi di Perpendidikan Tinggi. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan, 11(2), 75-86.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright of Balitbang Kemendikbud © 2016

        Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.