“Kompetensi” Sebagai Landasan Konseptual Kebijakan Kurikulum Sekolah di Indonesia

Hermana Somantrie

Abstract


The concept of “competency” has been applied in school’s curriculum in Indonesia in the early of twenty-first century. Competency includes knowledge, attitude, and skills. The integration of competency through curriculum has given a new perspective in education world of Indonesia. Such curriculum is labelle specifically as “Competency-Based Curriculum” or (in Bahasa Indonesia) is “Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi”. Traditionally, curriculum has always been labelled by the year of its promulgation. For example, the 1975 Curriculum was promulgated in 1975. This kind of curriculum labelling was also applied to the 1984 Curriculum and the 1994 Curriculum.

 

ABSTRAK

Konsep kompetensi telah digunakan dalam kurikulum sekolah di Indonesia pada awal abad ke-21. Kompetensi mencakup pengetahuan, sikap, dan keterampilan. Integrasi kompetensi melalui kurikulum telah memberikan perspektif baru dalam pendidikan di Indonesia. Kurikulum semacam ini dinamakan dengan dengan Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi. Secara tradisional, kurikulum di Indonesia diberikan label sesuai dengan tahun pemberlakuannya, seperti Kurikulum 1975 diberlakukan tahun 1975, begitu pula Kurikulum 1994 dan Kurikulum 2004.


Keywords


competency, knowledge, attitude, skills, competencies based curriculum, kompetensi, pengetahuan, sikap, keterampilan, kurikulum berbasis kompetensi.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allport, Gordon. 1935. “Attitudes” in A Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. 798-844). Worchester, MA: Clark University Press.

Anderson, L.W. & Krathwohl, D.R. (eds.). 2001. A Taxonomy of Learning, Teaching, and Assessment: a Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Longman.

Armstrong, David G. 1980. Social Studies in Secondary Education. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.

Australian Department of Education, Science, and Training. 2006. Employability Skills: From Framework to Practice. Melbourne, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia.

Bem, Daryl J. 1970. Beliefs, Attitudes, and Human Affairs. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Bloom, B. S. 1956. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook 1; Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co. Inc.

Bogardus, E. S. 1931. Fundamentals of Social Psychology. (2nd ed.) New York: Century.

Brophy, Jere. 1999. Toward a Model of the Value Aspects of Motivation in Education: Developing Appreciation for Particular Learning Domains and Activities. Journal of Educational Psychologist. Volume: 34. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 1999.

Calhoun, Craig, Donald Light, & Suzanne Keller. 1994. Sociology. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Clayton, Berwyn; Kaaren Blom; David Meyers; and Andrea Bateman. 2003. Assessing and Certifying Generic Skills: What Is Happening In Vocational Education and Training? Adelaide, Australia: National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER).

Cantril, H. 1934. “The Roles of the Situation and Adrenalin in the Induction of Emotion.” The American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 45, pp. 568 – 579.

Cohen, David K. 1980. “Minimums, Competency Testing, and Social Policy” in Minimum Competency Achievement Testing, Edited by Richard M. Jaeger & Carol Kehr Tittle. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan Publishing Company.

Dalton, Bruce and Lois Wright. 1999. Using Community Input for the Curriculum Review Process. Journal of Social Work Education. Volume: 35. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 1999.

Drucker, P.F. 1993. Post-Capitalist Society. London: HarperCollins.

Eagly, Alice and Chaiken, Shelly. 1993. The Psychology of Attitudes, Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich

Fazio, Russel H. 1986. Multiple Processes by Which Attitudes Guide Behavior: The Mode Model as an Integrative Framework. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc.

Fishbein, M. and Ajzan,I. 1975. Belief Attitude Intention and Behavior: and Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Gerlach, Vernon S. & Donald P. Ely. 1980. Teaching and Media: A Systematic Approach. Princeton, NJ: Prentice Hall Inc.

Gibb, Je (ed.). 2004. Generic Skills in Vocational Education and Training. Adelaide, Australia: National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER).

Glendon, I.A. and McKenna, E.F. 1995. Human Safety and Risk Management. London: Chapman and Hale.

Gronlund, Norman E. 1976. Measurement and Evaluation in Teaching. New York: Mac-Millan Publishing Company.

Hetherington & Parke. 1999. Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint, 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Idialu, Jeremiah Uwaifo and Richard Iyere Oghuma. 2007. Educating Accountants in Corruption Pervasive Societies: A Focus on Nigeria. College Student Journal. Volume: 41. Issue: 4. Publication Year: 2007.

Isaacs, Geoff. 1996. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland, Teaching and Educational Development Institute.

Krathwohl, D.R., Bloom, B.S., & Masia, B.B. 1964. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook II: Affective Domain. New York: David McKay Company, Inc.

Krueger, E. T., & Reckless, W. C. 1931. Social Psychology. New York: Longmans, Green.

Levitt, B., March, J.G. 1998, “Organizational Learning”, Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 14 pp.319-40.

Lublin, Jackie. 2003. Generic objectives and Transferable Skills. Dublin, UK: Center for Teaching and Learning.

Lundberg, GA. 1929. “The Measurement of Attitudes.” Editor Lundberg. Social Research: In Study in Methods of Gathering Data. New York: Longman, Green.

McClelland, David C. 1973. Testing for competence rather than for intelligence. American Psychologist, 28, 1-14

National Institute on Aging. 2006. Research Highlights in the Demography and Economics of Aging. Bethesda, MD: NIA Office.

Nonaka, L., Takeuchi, H. 1995. The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

O’Brien, Kathleen M. 2004. A Tripartite of Student Learning for “Real World” Experiences in Hospitality Programs. Buffalo, NY: Buffalo State College, Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Faculty Fellowship.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 1997. Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Paris, French: Directorate of Education, OECD Office.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Education Ministers. 2005. The Definition And Selection Of Key Competencies: Executive Summary. Paris, French: OECD Office.

Petro Skill Competency System Bulletin. 2008. Competent People – Competent Workforce. Tulsa, OK: Petroleum Office.

Rakhmat, Jalaluddin. 1996. Psikologi Komunikasi. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosda Karya.

Raven, J., & Stephenson, J. (Eds.). 2001. Competence in the Learning Society. New York: Peter Lang.

Robins, Richard W, Kali H. Trzesniewski, Jessica L. Tracy, Davis Samuel D. Gosling, & Jeff Potter. 2002.

“Global Self-Esteem Across the Life Span”. Psychology and Aging 2002, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 423–434.

Senge, P.M. 1990, The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. Thousand Oaks, CA: Doubleday/Currency.

Smith, Erica and Paul Comyn. 2003. The Development of Employability Skills and Novice Workers. Station Arcade, Australia: National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER).

Smith, MB., Bruner, JS., & White, RW. 1956. Opinions and Personality. New York: Wiley.

Spady, William G. 1980. “The Concept and Implications of Competency-Based Education” in Minimum Competency Achievement Testing, Edited by Richard M. Jaeger & Carol Kehr Tittle. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan Publishing Company.

Spencer, Lyle M. & Signe M. Spencer. 1993. Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suriasumantri, Jujun S. 1995. Ilmu dalam Perspektif. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia.

Taylor, F.W.1911, The Principles of Scientific Management. Newbury Park, CA: Norton, Inc.

Toffler, Alvin. 1990. Powershift: Knowledge, Wealth, and Violence at the Edge of the 21st Century. New York: Bantam.

Thurstone, LL. 1931. “The measurement of change in social attitude.” Journal of Social Psychology, Vol 2, 230-235.

Undang-Undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional.

Wagner, Toni. 2008. The Global Achievement Gap. New York: Basic Books, A Member of the Perseus Books Group.

Warren, H. 1934. Dictionary of Education. Cambridge, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Wilson, James AR., Mildred C. Robeck, & William B. Michael. 1974. Psychological Foundations of Learning and Teaching. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

World Bank. 2009. World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: The World Bank Office.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24832%2Fjpnk.v16i6.497

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


View My Stats

Copyright of Balitbang Kemendikbud © 2016

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.