PERANCANGAN KURIKULUM SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEJURUAN SEBAGAI PRANATA BUDAYA KERJA

Sutjipto Sutjipto

Abstract


This study is to describe comprehensively the design of vocational high school curriculum as a work culture institution. The results of the study five things. First, the important content of work culture values for vocational school students. Second, curriculum developers are encouraged to modify the work culture, which leads to the values of hard work, work ethic, discipline, responsibility, creativity, cooperation, morality, to ethical and aesthetic standards. Third, curriculum developers are encouraged to redefine the essence of industrial work practices carried out by students. Fourth, the growth of work culture in schools is designed with shared commitment through systems, structures, regulations, and daily practices. Fifth, strengthening the work culture can be implemented in two ways, namely internalizing the values of work culture and creating a friendly school environment with a work culture. Study it conclude that the design of the vocational high school curriculum must generate students with capability in transforming moral and performance-based work culture institutions.

Abstrak

Tujuan dari kajian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan secara komprehensif perancangan kurikulum sekolah menengah kejuruan sebagai pranata budaya kerja. Hasil pengkajian terkait dengan perancangan kurikulum sekolah menengah kejuruan, diperoleh lima hal. Pertama, muatan nilai-nilai budaya kerja bagi peserta didik sekolah menengah kejuruan penting. Kedua, pengembang kurikulum didorong untuk mengoreksi kembali pranata budaya kerja, yang mengarah pada nilai-nilai kerja keras, etos kerja, disiplin, tanggung jawab, kreativitas, kerja sama, moralitas, hingga standar etika dan estetika. Ketiga, pengembang kurikulum didorong untuk merumuskan ulang secara jelas esensi dari praktik kerja industri yang dilakukan peserta didik. Keempat, penumbuhan budaya kerja di sekolah dirancang dengan komitmen bersama melalui sistem, struktur, peraturan, dan praktik keseharian. Kelima, untuk penguatan budaya kerja bisa dilakukan melalui dua strategi, yaitu internalisasi nilai-nilai budaya kerja dan penciptaan lingkungan sekolah yang ramah dengan budaya kerja. Dari hasil kajian dapat disimpulkan bahwa perancangan kurikulum sekolah menengah kejuruan harus membawa peserta didik mampu mentransformasikan pranata budaya kerja berbasis moral dan kinerja.




Keywords


curriculum design, work culture, vocational school, perancangan kurikulum, budaya kerja, SMK

Full Text:

PDF (Indonesian)

References


Aaltonen, K., Isacsson, A., Laukia, J., and Vanhanen-Nuutinen, L. 2013. Practical skills, education and development- Vocational education and training in Finland. HAAGA-HELIA University of Applied Sciences.

Adhikary, P.K. 2005.Educational Reform For Linking Skills Development With Employment In Nepal. In M. Singh (Eds.), Meeting Basic Learning Needs in the Informal Sector Integrating Education and Training for Decent Work, Empowerment and Citizenship (pp. 215-228).Hamburg, Germany: UNESCO Institute for Education.

Agran, M., Hughes, C., Thoma, C. A. and Scott, LaRon A. 2014. Employment Social Skills: What Skills Are Really Valued? Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals, vol. 39, 2: pp. 111-120., First Published August 19, 2014.

Ashton, D. 2013.Cultural workers in-the-making, European Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 16, 4: pp. 468-488., First Published April 26, 2013.

Asian Development Bank, 2014. Sustainable Vocational Training Toward Industrial Upgrading and Economic Transformation: A Knowledge Sharing Experience. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, 2014.

Atchoarena, D. 2009. Overview: Issues and Options in Financing Technical and Vocational Education and Training. InR. Maclean, D. Wilson,andC. Chinien (Eds.), International Handbook of Educationfor the Changing World of Work, Bridging Academic and Vocational Learning (pp.129-1036). Germany: Springer.

Badan Pusat Statistik. 2017. Berita Resmi Statistik No. 47/05/Th. XX, 05 Mei 2017. Jakarta: BPS.

Bauer, W and Przygodda, K. 2003. New Learning Concepts within the German System of Vocational Education and Training, European Educational Research Journal, vol. 2, 1: pp. 22-40. , First Published Mar 1, 2003.

Bendassolli, P. F. 2016.Work and culture: Approaching cultural and work psychology, Culture & Psychology, vol. 23, 3: pp. 372-390., First Published December 15, 2016.

Bendassolli, P. F. and Tateo, L. 2017. The meaning of work and cultural psychology: Ideas for new directions, Culture & Psychology, First Published 9 Oct 2017.

Berbiglia, V. A. 2011.The Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory as a Curriculum Conceptual Framework in Baccalaureate Education, Nursing Science Quarterly, vol. 24, 2: pp. 137-145., First Published April 5, 2011.

Brodjonegoro, Satriyo S., 2018. Kecakapan Era 4.0, Harian Kompas, Rabu, 14 Februari 2018, hal. 6.

Calhoun, C. C., and Finch, A.V. 1982. Vocational Education: Concepts and Operations,(2nded.). Belmont, California: Wodsworth Publishing Company.

Chapman, K. J., Matthew Meuter, M., Toy, D. and Wright, L. 2006.Can’t We Pick our Own Groups? The Influence of Group Selection Method on Group Dynamics and Outcomes, Journal of Management Education, vol. 30, 4: pp. 557-569., First Published Aug 1, 2006.

Clarke, L. and Winch, C.2007. Vocational Education International:approaches, developmentand systems. Abingdon,USA: Routledge.

Comer,D. R. and Vega, G. 2006.Unsavory Problems at Tasty’s: A Role-Play about Whistle-Blowing, Journal of Management Education, vol. 30, 1: pp. 251-269., First Published Feb 1, 2006.

Dapodik. 2016. Data Pokok Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah, Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Oktober 2016. Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah: Jakarta.

Dean, K. L. and Fornaciari, C. J. 2013.Creating Masterpieces: How Course Structures and Routines Enable Student Performance, Journal of Management Education, vol. 38, 1: pp. 10-42., First Published January 30, 2013.

Deissinger, T. 2015.The German dual vocational education and training system as ‘good practice’?, Local Economy, vol. 30, 5: pp. 557-567., First Published June 15, 2015.

Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 1996. Lima Puluh Tahun Perkembangan Pendidikan Indonesia. Jakarta: Depdikbud.

Ditjen Dikdasmen. 2016. Keputusan Direktur Jenderal Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah Nomor4678/D/KEP/MK/2016 Tanggal 2 September 2016 tentang Spektrum Keahlian Pendidikan Menengah Kejuruan. Jakarta: Dit. PSMK.

Djojonegoro, W. 1998. Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia melalui SMK. Jakarta: PT. Jayakarta Agung Offset.

Doyle, L. 2012.Conceptualising a Transition: The Case of Vocational and Academic Learning in England, Scotland and the USA, Research in Comparative and International Education, vol. 7, 4: pp. 446-464., First Published January 1, 2012.

Eichhorst, W., Rodríguez-Planas, N., Schmidl, R. and Zimmermann, K. F. 2015.A Road Map to Vocational Education and Training in Industrialized Countries, ILR Review, vol. 68, 2: pp. 314-337., First Published January 6, 2015.

Finch, C. and Crunkilton, J.R., 1984, Curriculum Development in Vocational and Technical Education: Planning, Content and Implementation. Boston:Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

Gale, T., Mills, C. and Cross, R. 2017.Socially Inclusive Teaching: Belief, Design, Action as Pedagogic Work,Journal of Teacher Education, vol. 68, 3: pp. 345-356., First Published February 3, 2017.

Garland, D. 2006.Concepts of culture in the sociology of punishment, Theoretical Criminology, vol. 10, 4: pp. 419-447., First Published Nov 1, 2006.

Gondo, T. and Dafuleya, G. 2010. Technical Vocational Education and Training for Micro-Enterprise Development in Ethiopia: A Solution or Part of the Problem?, Industry and Higher Education, vol. 24, 5: pp. 381-392., First Published October 1, 2010.

Grabowska, I. 2017. Social skills, workplaces and social remittances: A case of post-accession migrants, Work, Employment and Society, First Published 2 Oct 2017.

Grugulis, I. and Vincent, S. 2009. Whose skill is it anyway?: ‘soft’ skills and polarization, Work, Employment and Society, vol. 23, 4: pp. 597-615., First Published December 17, 2009.

Ha-Brookshire, J. E. and Lee, Y. 2010. Korean Apparel Manufacturing Industry: Exploration From the Industry Life Cycle Perspective, Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, vol. 28, 4: pp. 279-294., First Published June 21, 2010.

Hiniker, L.A. and Putnam,R.A.2009. Partnering to Meet the Needsof a ChangingWorkplace (203-208).InR. Maclean, D. Wilson, andC. Chinien (Eds.),International Handbook of Educationfor the Changing World of Work,

Bridging Academic and Vocational Learning (pp. 203-208). Germany: Springer.

Joo, J. 2007.The Impact of the Automobile and its Culture in the U.S., International Area Review, vol. 10, 1: pp. 39-54., First Published Mar 1, 2007.

Jones, M. E.,Cason, C. L. and Bond, M. L. 2004. Cultural Attitudes, Knowledge, and Skills of a Health Workforce,

Journal of Transcultural Nursing, vol. 15, 4: pp. 283-290. , First Published Oct 1, 2004.

King, K.and Palmer, R. 2010.Plann¬ing for Technical and Vocational Skills Development. Paris: UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul¬tural Organization).

Kiprianos, P. and Christodoulou, M. 2015.Ambivalent Biographies in Adolescence: What Vocational Students Think and Feel About Their Schooling, SAGE Open, vol. 5, 4, First Published October 19, 2015.

Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 2011.Naskah Akademik Pengembangan Kurikulum. Tidak Dipublikasikan. Jakarta: Kemendikbud.

Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 2017. Materi Pelatihan Kurikulum 2013 Tahun 2017. Jakarta: Ditjen Dikdasmen.

Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 2017. Program Kerja Reformasi Birokrasi Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Tahun 2017. Jakarta: Kemendikbud.

Kementerian Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia. 2016. Instruksi Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 9 Tahun 2016 tentang tentang Revitalisasi Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan dalam Rangka Peningkatan Kualitas dan Daya Saing Sumber Daya Manusia Indonesia. Jakarta: Kementerian Sekretariat Negara.

Kogan, I. and Unt, M. 2008. The Role of Vocational Specificity of Educational Credentials for Labour Market Entry in Estonia and Slovenia, International Sociology, vol. 23, 3: pp. 389-416., First Published May 1, 2008.

Kompas. 11 November 2017. Sumber Daya Manusia: Belajar dari Sekolah Vokasi di Jerman. Hal. 18.

Kompas. 14 November 2017. Lulusan Vokasi Menganggur: Kurikulum Tak Sesuai dengan Kebutuhan Industri. Hal. 17.

Lizardo,O.2016. Improving Cultural Analysis: Considering Personal Culture in its Declarative and Nondeclarative Modes, American Sociological Review, vol. 82, 1: pp. 88-115., First Published December 8, 2016.

Malihah, E. 2015. An ideal Indonesian in an increasingly competitive world: Personal character and values required to realise a projected 2045 ‘Golden Indonesia’, Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, vol. 14, 2: pp. 148-156., First Published August 12, 2015.

Mendes, P., McCurdy, S., Allen-Kelly, K., Charikar, K. and Incerti, K. 2014. Integrating professional social work identity and social justice advocacy: An analysis of the Australian campaign to restore Medicare rebates for accredited mental health social workers, Journal of Social Work, vol. 15, 5: pp. 516-536., First Published September 25, 2014.

Mendoza, K. S. and McPherson, M. L. 2017. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes Regarding the Use of Medical Cannabis in the Hospice Population: An Educational Intervention, American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine®, First Published 9 Nov 2017.

Ndraha, T. 2005. Teori Budaya Organisasi, Cetakan Pertama. Jakarta:Rineka Cipta.

Ndraha, T. 2010.Budaya Organisasi, Cetakan Ketiga. Jakarta:Rineka Cipta.

Newton, L. and Kirk, H. 1999. The Relevance of Vocational Education for Occupational Therapy Support Workers.

British Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 62, 3: pp. 131-135., First Published Mar 1, 1999.

Raelin, J. A.2008. Work-Based Learning New and Revised Edition. San Francisco:Jossey Bass.

Rosen, R.,Weiss, P. L., Zancanaro, M. and Gal, E. 2017.Usability of a video modeling computer application for the vocational training of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, British Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 80, 4: pp. 208-215., First Published February 2, 2017.

Sahlberg, P. 2014. Finnish Lessons 2.0. What can the world learn from educational change in Finland? 2nd edn. New York, Teachers College, Columbia University.

Schütte, M. and Spöttl, G. 2011. Development of Entry-Level Competence Tests: A Strategy for Evaluation of

Vocational Education Training Systems,Research in Comparative and International Education, vol. 6, 3: pp. 285-299., First Published January 1, 2011.

Sonhadji, A. 2012. Manusia, Teknologi, dan Pendidikan Menuju Peradaban Baru. Malang: UM Press.

Stewart, D. and Molly B. Pepper, M. B. 2010.Close Encounters: Lessons From an Indigenous MBA Program,

Journal of Management Education, vol. 35, 1: pp. 66-83., First Published October 7, 2010.

Sutrisno, J. 2008. Teknik Penyusunan Modul. Jakarta: Direktorat Pembinaan Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan.

Thompson, E. R. 2003.A Grounded Approach to Identifying National Competitive Advantage: A Preliminary

Exploration, Environment and Planning A, vol. 35, 4: pp. 631-657., First Published Apr 1, 2003.

Tran, Ly Thi. 2013.Internationalisation of Vocational Education and Training: An Adapting Curve for Teachers and Learners.Journal of Studies in International Education, vol. 17, 4: pp. 492-507., First Published January 2, 2013.

Trocchia, P. J., Swanson, D. L. and Orlitzky, M. 2007.Digging Deeper: the Laddering Interview, a Tool for Surfacing Values,Journal of Management Education, vol. 31, 5: pp. 713-729. , First Published Oct 1, 2007.

Van den Broeck, A., De Cuyper, N., Luyckx, K. and De Witte, H. 2012. Employees’ job demands–resources profiles, burnout and work engagement: A person-centred examination, Economic and Industrial Democracy, vol. 33, 4: pp. 691-706., First Published February 6, 2012.

Wallace, M. and Leicht, K. T. 2004. Culture Wars in the Workplace?: Cultural Antecedents of Workers’ Job Entitlement,Work and Occupations, vol. 31, 1: pp. 3-37., First Published Feb 1, 2004.

Warren, A. 2014.Working Culture: The Agency and Employment Experiences of Nonunionized Workers in the Surfboard Industry, Environment and Planning A, vol. 46, 10: pp. 2300-2316., First Published January 1, 2014.

Widarto, Sukir, Purnastuti, L. dan Wagiran.2007. Peranan SMK Kelompok Teknologi terhadap Pertumbuhan Manufaktur. Jakarta: Direktorat Pembinaan Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan, Depdiknas.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24832%2Fjpnk.v4i1.1219

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


View My Stats

Copyright of Balitbang Kemendikbud © 2016

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.