INKLUSIVITAS PROGRAM INDONESIA PINTAR: STUDI KASUS PELAKSANAANNYA BAGI ANAK BERKEBUTUHAN KHUSUS DI LIMA DAERAH

Irsyad Zamjani

Abstract


Program Indonesia Pintar (PIP), literally translated as Smart Indonesia Program, is one of the Jokowi administration’s strategic programs as the form of the 5th Nawacita or priority in Sanskrit words, and it applies in education and sector. The effectiveness of this conditional cash transfer program in education sector has been the subject of many studies. However, none of those studies discusses its fitness to special needs children (SNC) in the national school system. This is against the fact that SNC are the most susceptible to poverty and lower school participation as many studies have revealed. To meet such literature gap, this article analyzes the ways SNC are being included into the PIP system, by focusing on three issues: extent, easiness, and expedience. Using secondary data analysis, focused group discussions and semi-structured interviews in five local administrations, the study found that only a handful of SNC were registered as the program recipients; local governments varied in their initiatives to improve the PIP service quality; and there was a significant shortfall of PIP grant in covering the actual SNC personal cost. Despite several initiatives the central government has made to put SNC into the system, the study indicated the existing system is yet to be entirely sensitive to the specific conditions of SNC. Therefore, the article recommends a number of policy options to transform PIP to be a more inclusive conditional cash transfer program.


Abstrak

Program Indonesia Pintar (PIP) merupakan salah satu program strategis Pemerintah Jokowi-JK sebagai perwujudan nawacita kelima dalam sektor pendidikan. Beberapa kajian sudah dilakukan mengenai efektivitas program bantuan tunai bersyarat ini, namun tidak banyak yang menyinggung bagaimana prioritas ini melayani anak-anak berkebutuhan khusus (ABK). Padahal, berbagai studi telah menunjukkan bahwa ABK merupakan kelompok yang paling rentan terhadap rendahnya partisipasi pendidikan dan ancaman kemiskinan. Artikel ini bertujuan mengulas bagaimana pelayanan PIP diberikan bagi para ABK. Tiga aspek pelayanan yang menjadi fokus mencakup jangkauan, kemudahan, dan kemanfaatan. Menggunakan teknik analisis data sekunder, diskusi kelompok terpumpun, dan wawancara terstruktur yang melibatkan informan di lima kabupaten/kota. Studi ini menemukan bahwa PIP hanya menjangkau sebagian kecil ABK di sekolah, tingkat inisiatif Pemerintah Daerah yang beragam dalam mempermudah layanan PIP bagi ABK, dan adanya selisih yang cukup besar antara besaran manfaat PIP dan biaya personal riil ABK. Meski diakui bahwa Pemerintah telah berupaya memasukkan ABK ke dalam sistem PIP, namun hasil penelitian mengisyaratkan sistem yang ada belum sepenuhnya peka terhadap kekhususan ABK. Oleh karena itu, artikel ini merekomendasikan sejumlah opsi kebijakan yang dapat menjadikan PIP sebagai suatu sistem bantuan tunai bersyarat yang lebih inklusif.




Keywords


conditional cash transfer, poverty, Smart Indonesia Program, Special Needs Children, bantuan tunai bersyarat, Program Indonesia Pintar, kemiskinan, anak berkebutuhan khusus

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24832%2Fjpnk.v4i1.1095

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